As described by the Artemis website:
The Captain is simultaneously the most important member of the crew,
and the least involved in terms of physical game play.
In an ideal setup with a full crew, the Captain doesn’t manage any of the bridge stations,
instead focusing his/her efforts on monitoring the main screen, prioritizing targets,
and timing the interactions of the crew.
The Captain needs to maintain order among the crew members so the whole affair doesn’t
become a shouty mess where you go warping into some bad-guys grill just to immediately
eat a dozen photon torpedoes.
The helms officer flies the ship, maneuvering in battle for optimal positioning,
going to warp/jump when its time to haul ass, and managing the displays for the main screen.
Careful helms play is essential for successful battle,
helping to get the drop on enemies, avoid fire, and gain target lock.
Helms officers also share control of the main screen display and shields.
The weapons officer manages the beams, torpedoes, nukes, mines, and shields for the ship,
locking onto targets and blowing them to heck when the Captain commands it.
Weapons officers have to prioritize which sort of torpedoes to load into the tubes,
with a selection of Mines, Homing Torpedoes, Nukes, and ECM.
Weapons requires a good deal of coordination with Helms and Engineering to be successful,
setting up the shot and then giving the Weapons systems the power necessary to make it count.
Engineering controls the very beating heart of the Artemis,
managing the power systems and usage for the entire ship.
If a given system has no power dedicated to it, it doesn’t work.
Engineering can add more power to something to make it work better,
e.g. make the ship turn faster, beams fire faster, etc.
Doing this will cause that system to overheat, so engineering manages cooling systems.
Engineering also manages the damage control systems,
prioritizing ship’s repairs when damage is taken in battle.
Interaction between engineering, helms, and weapons will make or break any given combat,
as a sudden loss of power to steering, weapons, or shields can have drastic consequences,
and an extra boost can give you a big advantage over a more powerful ship.
The Comms officer can transmit orders to friendly vessels,
request a space station build a type of ordnance, and snoop on enemy communications.
Comms can also taunt enemy ships, getting them to attack your ship instead of a
space station or friendly vessel. Comms can also order them to surrender.
Finally, comms can signal RED ALERT!
(which doesn’t do much aside from blasting a really annoying sound from everyone’s console,
and making the radar retical turn red) Comms should hit RED ALERT a lot.
The science officer runs the advanced sensors of the Artemis, detecting
and assessing enemy ships as well as finding space anomalies for the Artemis to investigate.
Science’s ability to scan the shields of enemy ships provides Weapons with
vital information need to prioritize targeting,
and its ability to find anomalies can grant your ship a much needed power-up
when you don’t have time to dock with a space station.